This page describes how to extend the BUILD language using macros and rules.
Bazel extensions are files ending in
.bzl. Use a load statement to import a symbol from an extension.
Before learning the more advanced concepts, first:
Read about the Starlark language, used in both the
Learn how you can share variables between two
Macros and rules
A macro is a function that instantiates rules. It is useful when a
BUILD file is getting too repetitive or too complex, as it allows you to reuse
some code. The function is evaluated as soon as the
BUILD file is read. After
the evaluation of the
BUILD file, Bazel has little information about macros:
if your macro generates a
genrule, Bazel will behave as if you wrote the
genrule. As a result,
bazel query will only list the generated
A rule is more powerful than a macro. It can access Bazel internals and have full control over what is going on. It may for example pass information to other rules.
If you want to reuse simple logic, start with a macro. If a macro becomes complex, it is often a good idea to make it a rule. Support for a new language is typically done with a rule. Rules are for advanced users, and most users will never have to write one; they will only load and call existing rules.
A build consists of three phases.
Loading phase. First, load and evaluate all extensions and all
BUILDfiles that are needed for the build. The execution of the
BUILDfiles simply instantiates rules (each time a rule is called, it gets added to a graph). This is where macros are evaluated.
Analysis phase. The code of the rules is executed (their
implementationfunction), and actions are instantiated. An action describes how to generate a set of outputs from a set of inputs, e.g. “run gcc on hello.c and get hello.o”. You must list explicitly which files will be generated before executing the actual commands. In other words, the analysis phase takes the graph generated by the loading phase and generates an action graph.
Execution phase. Actions are executed, when at least one of their outputs is required. If a file is missing or if a command fails to generate one output, the build fails. Tests are also run during this phase.
Bazel uses parallelism to read, parse and evaluate the
.bzl files and
files. A file is read at most once per build and the result of the evaluation is
cached and reused. A file is evaluated only once all its dependencies (
statements) have been resolved. By design, loading a
.bzl file has no visible
side-effect, it only defines values and functions.
Bazel tries to be clever: it uses dependency analysis to know which files must be loaded, which rules must be analyzed, and which actions must be executed. For example, if a rule generates actions that you don’t need for the current build, they will not be executed.
Create your first macro in order to reuse some code. Then learn more about macros and using them to create “custom verbs”.
Follow the rules tutorial to get started with rules. Next, you can read more about the rules concepts.
The two links below will be very useful when writing your own extensions. Keep them within reach:
In addition to macro and rules, you may want to write aspects and repository rules.
Use Buildifier consistently to format and lint your code.
Test your code.
Generate documentation to help your users.
Optimize the performance of your code.
Deploy your extensions to other people.